The Chaucer Review: An Indexed Bibliography (Vols. 1-30)Return to the Subject List
Haines, R. Michael. "Fortune, Nature, and Grace in Fragment C." 10 (1976): 220-35.
When responding to the Pardoner's Tale, the Host does not mention the gifts of Grace, because Grace brings life, but Fortune and Nature bring death. His comments do, however, suggest a unifying theme for the Canterbury Tales. In the Physician's Tale, Virginia exemplifies the gifts of both Grace and Nature. Fortune uses Apius; Grace (mis)uses Virginius who allows Virginia to remain a virgin without forcing her to commit suicide, thus helping her to avoid a mortal sin. The Physician's Tale makes the point "that one must be prepared to die by living in Grace, free from sin" (226). The Pardoner's Tale shows the subversion of Fortune's, Nature's, and Grace's gifts. The Pardoner's three sins, gluttony, gambling, and swearing, are ultimately profanations of Nature, Fortune, and Grace respectively. The three revelers also pervert these gifts. Chaucer treats these gifts in the Man of Law's Tale, the Second Nun's Tale, the Prioress's Tale, and the Monk's Tale as well.
Scattergood, V. J. "Perkyn Revelour and the Cook's Tale." 19 (1984): 14-23.
Although the Cook's Tale is unfinished, critics can determine Perkyn Revelour's character and ascertain that Chaucer probably intended the Cook's Tale to be a fabliau based on Perkyn's portrait. Perkyn is, like other mischievous apprentices and vice figures, associated with gambling and prostitution. Chaucer's treatment of these customs gives his account of Perkyn a naturalistic feel.