*The Chaucer Review*: An Indexed Bibliography (Vols. 1-30)

**Acker, Paul. "The Emergence of an Arithmetical Mentality in Middle English Literature." 28 (1994): 293-302. **

Arithmetical methods passed from Pythagoras to Boethius, who passed these ideas on to Cassiodorus and Isidore. Bartholomaeus Anglicus picks up these ideas in *De proprietatibus rerum,* translated by Trevisa into Middle English. In the twelfth century, algorism began to replace arithmetic. Gower refers to this new arithmetic in the *Confessio amantis* in a stanza borrowed from Brunetto Latini. *The Court of Sapience* also reveals a shift in mathematical models. *The Art of Nombryng* and *Mum and the Sothsegger* give evidence that even those writers not concerned with mathematics were becoming aware of it.

**Hart, Thomas Elwood. "Medieval Structuralism: 'Dulcarnoun' and the Five-Book Design of Chaucer's Troilus." 16 (1981): 129-70. **

Chaucer carefully laid out the structure of

**Hirsh, John C. "Classical Tradition and The Owl and the Nightingale." 9 (1974): 145-52. **

Writers such as Gregory of Nyssa, Pythagoras, Plato, and Ambrose connect jackdaws to owls when presenting metempsychosis. As the owl only flies at night and was supposedly ashamed of this fact, the owl offers some comic possibilities.