The Chaucer Review: An Indexed Bibliography (Vols. 1-30)Return to the Subject List
Bloomfield, Morton W. "Personification-Metaphors." 14 (1980): 287-97.
Some images function like personifications but are veiled, and these are personification-metaphors. True personifications continue for an extended period in the text, while a personification-metaphor may only encompass one or two lines. Unlike Shakespeare and Milton, Chaucer did not use personification-metaphors often. The appendix provides a list of additional personification-metaphors in Keats.
Guthrie, Steven R. "Prosody and the Study of Chaucer: A Generative Reply to Halle-Keyser." 23 (1988): 30-49.
Chaucer wrote Troilus and Criseyde and other poems in a Romance iambic pentameter with strong French overtones, as opposed to Shakespeare who wrote in a Renaissance iambic pentameter. Chaucer's rhythms depend on his ability to put weak stresses where strong stresses should be and vice versa. Careful comparision of Chaucer to Shakespeare reveals that the two writers use significantly different variations of iambic pentameter. Examination of Machaut's lines reveals, however, a number of similarities to Chaucer.